“That fucking Picasso . . . He's done everything!” Jackson Pollock
“To copy others is necessary, but to copy oneself is pathetic.” Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973) was a Spanish artist, who spent most of his adult life in France. He generally regarded as one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century. Picasso's earlier career is marked by his jumping from one avant-garde style to another, from Post-Impressionist and Symbolist work, to his Blue and Rose periods, Proto-Cubist Primitive work, Analytical and Synthetic Cubism, Neoclassic works, and then to Expressionistic Surrealist work.
“Success is dangerous. One begins to copy oneself, and to copy oneself is more dangerous than to copy others. It leads to sterility.” Pablo Picasso
“Good artists copy, great artists steal.” Pablo Picasso
Post Impressionist Period
The son of an art teacher, Picasso began studying art in the academic tradition at age 13. At that age, Picasso already showed signs of great things to come. In 1900, Picasso left Spain with his best friend Carlos Casagemas, to work in the art capital of Europe, the Montparnasse district of Paris, France. Picasso lived in abject poverty and desperate circumstances with his roommate, the poet Max Jacob. Not much of Picasso's earliest work survives, as Picasso reportedly burned a lot of this work for warmth when he first moved to France.
“Painting is a blind man's profession. He paints not what he sees, but what he feels, what he tells himself about what he has seen.” Pablo Picasso
The Blue Period
In 1901, Picasso's best friend Carlos Casagemas committed suicide over the unrequited love of Germaine Pichot. Picasso's own depression following the suicide, the guilt of dating Germaine Pichot after his death, along with his poverty, would lead to the works of the Blue Period. Earlier, Picasso's art was starting to attract attention, but just when people were getting acclimated to his work, he abruptly changed style to the Blue Period. The subject matter of the Blue Period included starving mothers with children, beggars, and prostitutes. The public found this work too depressing, and it did not sell, thus continuing the cycle of poverty.
“The purpose of art is washing the dust of daily life off our souls.” Pablo Picasso
“We all know that Art is not truth. Art is a lie that makes us realize truth, at least the truth that is given us to understand.” Pablo Picasso
The Rose Period
In 1904, as Picasso's depression lifted, perhaps because of his new relationship with the bohemian artist and model Fernande Olivier. Olivier was frequently a model for Picasso in what would become known as the Rose Period. His colors and subject matter lightened considerably, as he began to paint circus people, acrobats, and harlequins in cheerful orange and pinks tones. Circus people were still considered societal outcasts, but they were less taboo than his depictions of poverty in the Blue Period. During this time, Picasso also met the Americans Leo and Gertrude Stein, who began collecting his work. At one of their parties, he also met Henri Matisse for the first time, who would become his lifelong friend and rival.
“Every act of creation is first an act of destruction.” Pablo Picasso
“I paint objects as I think them, not as I see them.” Pablo Picasso
In 1906, Picasso began to find inspiration in African sculpture and masks. Parisians were being exposed to it for the first time as a result of French colonial expansion into Sub-Saharan Africa. During this time Picasso was also influenced by Iberian sculpture and art from Oceania. These new influences would culminate into Picasso's breakthrough painting, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907). Picasso's Proto-Cubist work would easily transition itself to his next painting phase, Analytical Cubism.
“The world today doesn't make sense, so why should I paint pictures that do?” Pablo Picasso
“Only put off until tomorrow what you are willing to die having left undone.” Pablo Picasso
Picasso, with Georges Braque, is credited with the invention of Cubism. The first phase, Analytic Cubism, began in 1909. In Analytical Cubism, Picasso and Braque (and later many others) dissected and analyzed objects in terms of their shapes. The broken up shapes were reassembled into abstract compositions, often painted in monochrome brownish and neutral colors. Also, instead of the subject being depicted from one viewpoint, Analytical Cubism shows the subject from many viewpoints at the same time. During this time, Picasso and company were notorious for their wild, bohemian lifestyle. Picasso's friend, the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, was arrested on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre in 1911. Picasso was also brought in, but both were later exonerated.
“Inspiration exists, but it has to find us working.” Pablo Picasso
Picasso's Cubist innovations had given him some new fortune and fame. In 1912, Picasso left Olivier for a new girl, Marcelle Humbert, who he called Eva Gouel. He had fallen madly in love with Eva, and would declare his love for her in the title of some of paintings. Nevertheless, Picasso still managed to have an affair with another woman, Gaby Lespinasse, though he was devastated when Eva died of tuberculosis in 1915, age, 30. As a Spanish citizen, Picasso was not expected to fight for France during the First World War. He used this time to further develop his Cubist style, which became known as Synthetic Cubism. Picasso created Synthetic Cubism in 1912. Synthetic Cubism reintroduced color into Picasso's palette. Through Synthetic Cubism, Picasso also gave the world another innovation, the collage and assemblage, which would have far reaching implications for Modern Art.
“Never permit a dichotomy to rule your life, a dichotomy in which you hate what you do so you can have pleasure in your spare time. Look for a situation in which your work will give you as much happiness as your spare time.” Pablo Picasso
In the summer of 1918, Picasso married the ballerina, Olga Khoklova, who he had met the year before in Rome, while designing a set for a ballet. In the fall of 1918, the First World War ended. Both of these things would have a calming effect on Picasso's art. This era in Picasso's oeuvre would become known as his Neoclassical Period. The calmness of Picasso's work during this time, however, soon began to mask Picasso's troubled marriage. Olga was all class and high society, while Picasso had more bohemian interests and pursuits. Nevertheless, they had a child together, Paulo, born 1921. Picasso's marriage to Olga would collapse in 1927, when he took the younger Marie-Thérèse Walter as his mistress. Picasso refused to divorce Olga in order to prevent her from acquiring half of his wealth, as was French law, and the two would remain separated until her death in 1955.