Marc Chagall (1887 - 1985) was a Russian-French artist and a pioneer of modernism. Chagall was born near Vitebsk, Russian Empire (present day Belarus) in a poor Hasidic Jewish family. Memories of his life growing up in Vitbsk would color much of future art. Between 1906 and 1910, Chagall studied art in St. Petersburg, the political and cultural capital of the Russian Empire. He frequently visited his home, Vitebsk, where he meet his first wife, Bella Rosenfeld. In My Life, Chagall described his first meeting her: "Her silence is mine, her eyes mine. It is as if she knows everything about my childhood, my present, my future, as if she can see right through me." Completing his studies, in 1910, the ambitious Chagall moved on to Paris.
In Paris he created his own style of modern art based on his childhood experience of Eastern European Jewish folk culture. The Paris avant-garde was dominated by cubism at the time, and many viewed Chagall's colorful, dreamlike paintings as a curiosity. In 1914, a Berlin art dealer, however, found promise in Chagall's paintings, and invited him back to Berlin to exhibit there. Chagall accepted the invitation, thinking he would pass through Berlin on his way Vitebsk, where he intended to marry Bella. His plan was to stay just long enough for the exhibition and the wedding, and then return to Paris, but World War I intervened, and the Russian borders closed. Chagall spent the war years in Belarus and in 1915 married his beloved Bella.
When the Russian Revolution started in 1917, Chagall found himself in a dangerous situation, but also one with opportunity. As an artist, Chagall was respected in Russia, and he accepted a job to be Commissar of Arts for Vitebsk. This would result in his founding the Vitebsk Arts College. Chagall tried to create an atmosphere of diversity at his school, with artists working in a variety of different styles. This fell apart, however, when several key faculty members began pushing Suprematist art, a minimalist aesthetic focusing on squares and circles, disapproving Chagall's “bourgeois individualism.” Chagall resigned his post and moved to Moscow to work as a stage designer. Moscow was not a good place to be during this time, as famine hit the city hard after the war. When the Russian borders finally opened back up, Chagall, with Bella by his side, was determined to move back to Paris.
Chagall moved back to the Montparnasse district of Paris in 1923. On his way back to France he stopped in Berlin to recover the many pictures he had left there on exhibit ten years earlier, before the war began, but was unable to find or recover any of them. With all of his earliest work now gone, Chagall tried to recreate new ones from his memories of the past. Paris between the wars was modernism's “golden age,” with the Montparnasse district being ground zero for the world's intellectual elite. In this Parisian crucible, Chagall synthesized the art forms of Cubism, Symbolism, and Fauvism to create his own unique style. He had some success abroad, with his first show in the United States, featuring about 100 works, in 1926. He finally began to receive some attention in France, when in 1927 art critic Maurice Raynal included him in his book, Modern French Painters.
In 1933, Adolf Hitler rose to power in Germany. Anti-Semitic laws were being passed and the first concentration camp at Dachau had been established. Almost immediately, the Nazis began to a campaign against Modern Art. Expressionist, cubist, abstract, and Surrealist, along with anything intellectual, Jewish, foreign, socialist-inspired, or just plain difficult to understand was targeted for removal, to be replaced by more accessible, realist work, especially heavy with German and patriotic themes. Chagall was declared an Entartete Kunst, a “Degenerate Artist,” and his work was included in the famous Entartete Kunst exhibition in Munich, 1937.
When Germany invaded France, the Chagalls naively moved to the unoccupied south, in Vichy France. They were unaware that the Vichy government was collaborating with the Germans to send French Jews to German concentration camps. Chagall woke up to reality in October of 1940, when the Vichy government, under pressure from the Nazis, began to approve anti-Semetic laws, and French Jews were removed from public and academic positions. By then, however, they were trapped. America could be their only refuge, but they could not afford the ticket to New York, let alone the large bond that each immigrant had to pay upon entry to ensure that they would not be burden on the state.
Some circles in America, however, were sympathetic to the situation in France. France had capitulated quickly, faster than Poland only the year before. Paris was thought to be the center of civilization, and many were astonished to see it fall into Hitler's hands. Chagall was not the only Russian or Jewish artist trapped in France; Chaim Soutine, Max Ernst, and Max Beckmann all sought to escape. With help from Alfred Barr of the New York Museum of Modern Art, Chagall was added to a list of prominent artists whose lives were at risk and who the United States should try to extricate. A rescue operation to smuggle artists and intellectuals out of Europe to the US by providing them with forged visas was started. Chagall was one of over 2,000 people rescued by this operation and together with his family, he left France in May of 1941, when it was almost too late.
Chagall was awarded the Carnegie Prize in the United States in 1939, but he had no idea what kind of reception he would have stepping foot in America for the first time. He found out that he was somewhat famous in the art world, and that his work was more appreciated in the United States than in France. Chagall felt uncomfortable in his new role as artist-celebrity, in a foreign country where he could not even speak the language. He felt lost at first, exiled in a strange place and time. He spent a lot of time in Jewish communities, especially the Lower East Side, where he found familiar food and was able to read the newspapers printed in Yiddish. Soon, however, he found that New York was full of artists, writers, and composers who, like himself, had fled from Europe during the Nazi invasions. For the first time in his life, Chagall began to express interest in current events, and started painting the Crucifixion and scenes of war. When he learned that the Germans had destroyed Vitebsk, the town where he was raised, he became greatly distressed. He had also learned about the Nazi concentration camps. During a speech in February 1944, he summed up his feelings:
Meanwhile, the enemy jokes, saying that we are a "stupid nation." He thought that when he started slaughtering the Jews, we would all in our grief suddenly raise the greatest prophetic scream, and would be joined by the Christian humanists. But, after two thousand years of "Christianity" in the world—say whatever you like—but, with few exceptions, their hearts are silent... I see the artists in Christian nations sit still—who has heard them speak up? They are not worried about themselves, and our Jewish life doesn't concern them.
On September 2nd, 1944, Chagall lost his beloved wife, Bella, due to a virus infection, which was not treated due to the wartime shortages of medicine. Chagall's heart was broken, and he stopped painting for many months, and when he did resume painting, his first pictures were all concerned with preserving Bella's memory. Chagall tried to fight bitter feelings. He considered the possibility that their exile from Europe may have sapped her will to live, and that her death was just one of the millions of Jewish deaths that Germany was responsible for. A few months after the Allies succeeded in liberating Paris from the Nazi occupation, Chagall wrote a letter “To the Paris Artists,” which was published in a Paris weekly paper. In it he writes:
In recent years I have felt unhappy that I couldn't be with you, my friends. My enemy forced me to take the road of exile. On that tragic road, I lost my wife, the companion of my life, the woman who was my inspiration. I want to say to my friends in France that she joins me in this greeting, she who loved France and French art so faithfully. Her last joy was the liberation of Paris... Now, when Paris is liberated, when the art of France is resurrected, the whole world too will, once and for all, be free of the satanic enemies who wanted to annihilate not just the body but also the soul—the soul, without which there is no life, no artistic creativity.
By 1946, Chagall's art was becoming more widely recognized. The Museum of Modern Art gave Chagall a retrospective, will work culled from his 40 year career as an artist. America had welcomed Chagall with open arms, but France was his real home, and he began making plans to return to Paris at the first practical opportunity. The Europe he returned to was a very different place from what he had left behind. Paris was no longer the center of the art world; thanks in part to the influx of European immigrants during the war, New York was now the art capital. But perhaps the most disturbing to Chagall was the fate of Vitebsk, his hometown in Belarus. Vitebsk always had a sizable Jewish population. According to the Russian census of 1897, out of the total 65,900 population, Jews accounted for 34,400, roughly 52%. By the Second World War, Vitebsk's population had swelled to 240,000. When the Nazis occupied the city in July 1941, they quickly established a Jewish ghetto, and from the 8th of October to the 11th, they massacred all of Vitbsk's Jewish inhabitants. Later, much of the city was obliterated in the ensuing battles between the Germans and the Red Army soldiers. Of Vitebsk's 240,000 pre-war population, only 118 survived. All Chagall had left of his past were his memories and his paintings.
Chagall chose to retreat from Parisian public life and settled in the Cote d' Azur, south of France. Matisse and Picasso also lived nearby. Although they were close in proximity to each other, and they sometimes collaborated, their work was different enough that they viewed each other as rivals. They never became long-term friends. Picasso, however, did respect Chagall's work. Sometime in the 1950's, he said, “When Matisse dies, Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what color really is.”
Chagall's post-war years were fruitful. Through his daughter, Ida, he met Valentina (Vava) Brodsky, a woman from a similar Russian Jewish background. She became his secretary, but after a few months agreed to stay only if Chagall would marry her. The marriage took place in July of 1952. Chagall's art practice also expanded to include sculpture and ceramics, as well as many large scale, public commissions for murals, stained glass windows, mosaics, and tapestries.
In 1963, Chagall was commissioned to paint the new ceiling for the Paris Opera, a majestic 19th century building and national monument. Andre Malraux, France's Minister of Culture, wanted something unique and decided Chagall would be the ideal artist. This choice would become a public controversy, as many disliked the idea of having the ceiling of the historic building painted by a modern artist, while the xenophobes objected to having a Russian Jew decorate a French national monument. Magazines published condescending articles about Chagall. Chagall commented to one writer that:
They really had it in for me... It is amazing the way the French resent foreigners. You live here most of your life. You become a naturalized French citizen... work for nothing decorating their cathedrals, and still they despise you. You are not one of them.
Despite the scathing criticism, the 77 year old Chagall continued to work on the project, which took him a year to complete. The final canvas was nearly 2,400 square feet and required 440 pounds of paint. The work paid tribute to the composers Mozart, Wagner, Mussorgsky, Berlioz, and Ravel. Chagall was pleased with the work, and when it was unveiled in 1964, he felt vindicated when the press declared the new work to a great contribution to French culture. Chagall had finally won over France.
Chagall would continue to paint until his death in 1985, age 97. He was the last survivor of the first generation of European avante-garde artists, outliving Picasso, Matisse, and Miro. The subjects that interested him most continued to be his memories of Vitebsk, musicians, lovers, the circus, Biblical subjects, and Jewish themes, always a colorful celebration of life and a defiant stance against the tragedies of the 20th century. Chagall biographer Jackie Wullschlager writes that Chagall was:
a pioneer of modern art and one of its greatest figurative painters... On his canvases we read the triumph of modernism, the breakthrough in art to an expression of inner life that ... is one of the last century's signal legacies. At the same time Chagall was personally swept up in the horrors of European history between 1914 and 1945: world wars, revolution, ethnic persecution, the murder and exile of millions. In an age when many major artists fled reality for abstraction, he distilled his experiences of suffering and tragedy into images at once immediate, simple, and symbolic to which everyone could respond.
In his own way, then, it could be argued that Chagall was just as effective at combating darkness as some of the more politically motivated artists of his time.